Rtl_433 : Program To Decode Radio Transmissions From Devices On The ISM Bands

0
53

Rtl_433 (despite the name) is a generic data receiver, mainly for the 433.92 MHz, 868 MHz (SRD), 315 MHz, 345 MHz, and 915 MHz ISM bands.

The official source code is in the https://github.com/merbanan/rtl_433/ repository. For more documentation and related projects see the https://triq.org/ site.

It works with RTL-SDR and/or SoapySDR. Actively tested and supported are Realtek RTL2832 based DVB dongles (using RTL-SDR) and LimeSDR (LimeSDR USB and LimeSDR mini engineering samples kindly provided by MyriadRf), PlutoSDR, HackRF One (using SoapySDR drivers), as well as SoapyRemote.

Building / Installation

rtl_433 is written in portable C (C99 standard) and known to compile on Linux (also embedded), MacOS, and Windows systems. Older compilers and toolchains are supported as a key-goal. Low resource consumption and very few dependencies allow rtl_433 to run on embedded hardware like (repurposed) routers. Systems with 32-bit i686 and 64-bit x86-64 as well as (embedded) ARM, like the Raspberry Pi and PlutoSDR are well supported.

See BUILDING.md

Building rtl_433

rtl_433 currently supports these input types:

  • RTL-SDR (optional, recommended)
  • SoapySDR (optional)
  • files: CU8, CS16, CF32 I/Q data, U16 AM data (built-in)
  • rtl_tcp remote data servers (built-in)

Building rtl_433 with RTL-SDR or SoapySDR support is optional but using RTL-SDR is highly recommended. The libraries and header files for RTL-SDR and/or SoapySDR should be installed beforehand.

Nightly Builds

Some distributions offer nightly builds.

openSUSE

openSUSE users of at least Leap 42.3 or Tumbleweed can add the repository with daily builds:

$ sudo zypper addrepo -f obs://home:mnhauke:rtl_433:nightly/rtl_433
rtl_433-nightly
$ sudo zypper install rtl_433

The usual update mechanism will now keep the rtl_433 version current.

Fedora

Fedora users (31, 32 and Rawhide) can add the following copr repository to get nightly builds:

$ sudo dnf copr enable tvass/rtl_433
$ sudo dnf install rtl_433

The usual update mechanism will now keep the rtl_433 version current.

Linux / Mac OS X

Depending on your system, you may need to install the following libraries.

Debian:

sudo apt-get install libtool libusb-1.0-0-dev librtlsdr-dev rtl-sdr build-essential cmake pkg-config

Centos/Fedora/RHEL with EPEL repo using cmake:

  • If dnf doesn’t exist, use yum.

sudo dnf install libtool libusbx-devel rtl-sdr-devel rtl-sdr cmake

Mac OS X with MacPorts:

sudo port install rtl-sdr cmake

Mac OS X with Homebrew:

brew install rtl-sdr cmake pkg-config

CMake

Installation using CMake:

cd rtl_433/
mkdir build
cd build
cmake ..
make
make install

Use CMake with -DENABLE_SOAPYSDR=ON (default: AUTO) to require SoapySDR (e.g. with Debian needs the package libsoapysdr-dev), use -DENABLE_RTLSDR=OFF (default: ON) to disable RTL-SDR if needed. E.g. use:

cmake -DENABLE_SOAPYSDR=ON ..

Windows

MinGW-w64

You’ll probably want librtlsdr and libusb.

libusb has prebuilt binaries for windows, librtlsdr needs to be built (at least for the latest version, some binaries of older versions seem to be floating around)

librtlsdr

taken and adapted from here: https://www.onetransistor.eu/2017/03/compile-librtlsdr-windows-mingw.html

  • install MinGW-w64 and CMake
    • it’s easiest if you select the option to include CMake in your path, otherwise you’ll need to do this manually
  • download the libusb binaries from https://sourceforge.net/projects/libusb/files/libusb-1.0/ or from https://libusb.info/
    • take the latest release and then download the .7z file, the other file contains the sources (or ‘windows binaries’ on the .info website)
  • extract the archive and open the extracted folder
  • copy the contents of the include folder to <mingw_installation_folder>/include
  • copy the mingw64/dll/libusb-1.0.dll.a file to `<mingw_installation_folder>/lib
  • copy the mingw64/dll/libusb-1.0.dll file to <mingw_installation_folder>/bin
  • download the source code of librtlsdr https://github.com/steve-m/librtlsdr
  • go into the librtlsdr folder
  • open CMakeLists.txt with an editor that knows unix line endings
  • go to # Find build dependencies (around line 65) and comment/remove the line with find_package(Threads)
  • add the following lines instead

SET(CMAKE_THREAD_LIBS_INIT “-lpthread”)
SET(CMAKE_HAVE_THREADS_LIBRARY 1)
SET(THREADS_FOUND TRUE)

  • go into the cmake/modules folder and open FindLibUSB.cmake with a text editor
  • find the lines with the following text in them

/usr/include/libusb-1.0
/usr/include
/usr/local/include

  • add some extra lines to point to the MinGW include folder where you extracted libusb-1.0, making it look like this
    • take note of the “” around the folder names, these are needed when there are spaces in the folder name
    • you’ll need to find out the exact paths for your system

/usr/include/libusb-1.0
/usr/include
/usr/local/include
“C:/Program Files/mingw-w64/x86_64-8.1.0-posix-seh-rt_v6-rev0/mingw64/include”
“C:/Program Files/mingw-w64/x86_64-8.1.0-posix-seh-rt_v6-rev0/mingw64/include/libusb-1.0”

  • open a MinGW terminal in the librtlsdr folder
  • create build folder and go into it: mkdir build && cd build
  • generate makefiles for MinGW: cmake -G "MinGW Makefiles" ..
  • build the librtlsdr library: mingw32-make

rtl_433

  • clone the rtl_433 repository and cd into it
  • create a build folder and go into it: mkdir build && cd build
  • run cmake -G "MinGW Makefiles" .. in the build directory
  • run cmake-gui (this is easiest)
  • set the source (the rtl_433 source code directory) and the build directory (one might create a build directory in the source directory)
  • click configure
  • select the grouped and advanced tickboxes
  • go into the librtlsdr config group
  • point the LIBRTLSDR_INCLUDE_DIRS to the include folder of the librtlsdr source
  • point the LIBRTLSDR_LIBRARIES to the librtlsdr.dll.a file in the <librtlsdr_source>/build/src folder
    • that’s the one you’ve built earlier
  • start a MinGW terminal and run mingw32-make to build
    • when something in the tests folder doesn’t build, you can disable it by commenting out add_subdirectory(tests) in the CMakeLists.txt file in the source folder of rtl_433
  • rtl_433.exe should be built now
  • you need to place it in the same folder as librtlsdr.dll and libusb-1.0.dll (you should have seen both of them by now)
  • good luck!

Visual Studio 2017 CMake MSBuild

cd rtl_433
mkdir build
cd build
cmake -G “Visual Studio 15 2017 Win64” ..
MSBuild.exe rtl433.sln

  • -or- open the rtl433.sln

Visual Studio 2017 supplied project/solution

  • Open the rtl_433.sln from the vs15 folder -or-

cd rtl_433
cd vs15
MSBuild.exe rtl_433.sln

If your system is missing or you find these steps are outdated please PR an update or open an issue.

On Debian (sid) or Ubuntu (19.10+), apt-get install rtl-433 for other distros check https://repology.org/project/rtl-433/versions

On FreeBSD, pkg install rtl-433.

On MacOS, brew install rtl_433.

Docker images with rtl_433 are available on the github page of hertzg.

How To Add Support For Unsupported Sensors

Contributing Guidelines

The rtl_433 project is built on the work of many contributors analyzing, documenting, and coding device support. We are happy to accept your contribution of yet another sensor!

Please check if your contribution is following these guidelines to improve the feedback loop and decrease the burden for the maintainers.

Commit messages

PRs will be added as squash commit and the commit message will likely be updated to follow this format.

The commit messages should follow the common format of

<area_of_work>: <commit_message>

Area of work is optional and may be one of the following:

  • build: for build/build system related work
  • docs: for documentation related work, both in code and readme/docs folder
  • ci: for work related to continuous integration
  • test: for test related work
  • deps: for changes related to (external) dependencies (e.g. soapysdr is updated or mongoose is updated)
  • cosmetics: for housekeeping work, code style changes

Verb may be one of the following:

  • Add: for new additions, e.g. device support
  • Fix: for changes that don’t change anything to input/output (security related or bug fixing)
  • Remove: for changes that remove behaviour (e.g. some old algorithms are cleaned up)
  • Change: for changes that modify input/output behaviour (e.g. added checksums, preambles)
  • Improve: for improvements without changes in normal output/behaviour

Supporting Additional Devices And Test Data

Some device protocol decoders are disabled by default. When testing to see if your device is decoded by rtl_433, use -G 4 to enable all device protocols. This will likely produce false positives, use with caution.

The first step in decoding new devices is to record the signals using -S unknown. The signals will be stored individually in files named gNNN_FFFM_RRRk.cu8 :

ParameterDescription
NNNsignal grabbed number
FFFfrequency
RRRsample rate

This file can be played back with rtl_433 -r gNNN_FFFM_RRRk.cu8.

These files are vital for understanding the signal format as well as the message data. Use both analyzers -a and -A to look at the recorded signal and determine the pulse characteristics, e.g. rtl_433 -r gNNN_FFFM_RRRk.cu8 -a -A.

Make sure you have recorded a proper set of test signals representing different conditions together with any and all information about the values that the signal should represent. For example, make a note of what temperature and/or humidity is the signal encoding. Ideally, capture a range of data values, such a different temperatures, to make it easy to spot what part of the message is changing.

Add the data files, a text file describing the captured signals, pictures of the device and/or a link the manufacturer’s page (ideally with specifications) to the rtl_433_tests github repository. Follow the existing structure as best as possible and send a pull request.

https://github.com/merbanan/rtl_433_tests

Please don’t open a new github issue for device support or request decoding help from others until you’ve added test signals and the description to the repository.

The rtl_433_test repository is also used to help test that changes to rtl_433 haven’t caused any regressions.

Running

rtl_433 -h

[-V] Output the version string and exit
[-v] Increase verbosity (can be used multiple times).
-v : verbose, -vv : verbose decoders, -vvv : debug decoders, -vvvv : trace decoding).
[-c ] Read config options from a file
= Tuner options =
[-d | : | | rtl_tcp | help]
[-g | help] (default: auto)
[-t ] apply a list of keyword=value settings for SoapySDR devices
e.g. -t “antenna=A,bandwidth=4.5M,rfnotch_ctrl=false”
[-f ] Receive frequency(s) (default: 433920000 Hz)
[-H ] Hop interval for polling of multiple frequencies (default: 600 seconds)
[-p ] Set sample rate (default: 250000 Hz)
= Demodulator options =
[-R | help] Enable only the specified device decoding protocol (can be used multiple times)
Specify a negative number to disable a device decoding protocol (can be used multiple times)
[-G] Enable blacklisted device decoding protocols, for testing only.
[-X | help] Add a general purpose decoder (prepend -R 0 to disable all decoders)
[-Y auto | classic | minmax] FSK pulse detector mode.
[-Y level=] Manual detection level used to determine pulses (-1.0 to -30.0) (0=auto).
[-Y minlevel=] Manual minimum detection level used to determine pulses (-1.0 to -99.0).
[-Y minsnr=] Minimum SNR to determine pulses (1.0 to 99.0).
[-Y autolevel] Set minlevel automatically based on average estimated noise.
[-Y squelch] Skip frames below estimated noise level to reduce cpu load.
[-Y ampest | magest] Choose amplitude or magnitude level estimator.
= Analyze/Debug options =
[-a] Analyze mode. Print a textual description of the signal.
[-A] Pulse Analyzer. Enable pulse analysis and decode attempt.
Disable all decoders with -R 0 if you want analyzer output only.
[-y ] Verify decoding of demodulated test data (e.g. "{25}fb2dd58") with enabled devices
= File I/O options =
[-S none | all | unknown | known] Signal auto save. Creates one file per signal.
Note: Saves raw I/Q samples (uint8 pcm, 2 channel). Preferred mode for generating test files.
[-r | help] Read data from input file instead of a receiver
[-w | help] Save data stream to output file (a '-' dumps samples to stdout)
[-W | help] Save data stream to output file, overwrite existing file
= Data output options =
[-F kv | json | csv | mqtt | influx | syslog | null | help] Produce decoded output in given format.
Append output to file with : (e.g. -F csv:log.csv), defaults to stdout.
Specify host/port for syslog with e.g. -F syslog:127.0.0.1:1514
[-M time[:] | protocol | level | noise[:secs] | stats | bits | help] Add various meta data to each output.
[-K FILE | PATH | | =] Add an expanded token or fixed tag to every output line.
[-C native | si | customary] Convert units in decoded output.
[-n ] Specify number of samples to take (each sample is an I/Q pair)
[-T ] Specify number of seconds to run, also 12:34 or 1h23m45s
[-E hop | quit] Hop/Quit after outputting successful event(s)
[-h] Output this usage help and exit
Use -d, -g, -R, -X, -F, -M, -r, -w, or -W without argument for more help
= Supported device protocols =
[01] Silvercrest Remote Control
[02] Rubicson Temperature Sensor
[03] Prologue, FreeTec NC-7104, NC-7159-675 temperature sensor
[04] Waveman Switch Transmitter
[06]* ELV EM 1000
[07]* ELV WS 2000
[08] LaCrosse TX Temperature / Humidity Sensor
[10]* Acurite 896 Rain Gauge
[11] Acurite 609TXC Temperature and Humidity Sensor
[12] Oregon Scientific Weather Sensor
[13]* Mebus 433
[14]* Intertechno 433
[15] KlikAanKlikUit Wireless Switch
[16] AlectoV1 Weather Sensor (Alecto WS3500 WS4500 Ventus W155/W044 Oregon)
[17] Cardin S466-TX2
[18] Fine Offset Electronics, WH2, WH5, Telldus Temperature/Humidity/Rain Sensor
[19] Nexus, FreeTec NC-7345, NX-3980, Solight TE82S, TFA 30.3209 temperature/humidity sensor
[20] Ambient Weather, TFA 30.3208.02 temperature sensor
[21] Calibeur RF-104 Sensor
[22] X10 RF
[23] DSC Security Contact
[24]* Brennenstuhl RCS 2044
[25] Globaltronics GT-WT-02 Sensor
[26] Danfoss CFR Thermostat
[29] Chuango Security Technology
[30] Generic Remote SC226x EV1527
[31] TFA-Twin-Plus-30.3049, Conrad KW9010, Ea2 BL999
[32] Fine Offset Electronics WH1080/WH3080 Weather Station
[33] WT450, WT260H, WT405H
[34] LaCrosse WS-2310 / WS-3600 Weather Station
[35] Esperanza EWS
[36] Efergy e2 classic
[37]* Inovalley kw9015b, TFA Dostmann 30.3161 (Rain and temperature sensor)
[38] Generic temperature sensor 1
[39] WG-PB12V1 Temperature Sensor
[40] Acurite 592TXR Temp/Humidity, 5n1 Weather Station, 6045 Lightning, 3N1, Atlas
[41] Acurite 986 Refrigerator / Freezer Thermometer
[42] HIDEKI TS04 Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Rain Sensor
[43] Watchman Sonic / Apollo Ultrasonic / Beckett Rocket oil tank monitor
[44] CurrentCost Current Sensor
[45] emonTx OpenEnergyMonitor
[46] HT680 Remote control
[47] Conrad S3318P, FreeTec NC-5849-913 temperature humidity sensor
[48] Akhan 100F14 remote keyless entry
[49] Quhwa
[50] OSv1 Temperature Sensor
[51] Proove / Nexa / KlikAanKlikUit Wireless Switch
[52] Bresser Thermo-/Hygro-Sensor 3CH
[53] Springfield Temperature and Soil Moisture
[54] Oregon Scientific SL109H Remote Thermal Hygro Sensor
[55] Acurite 606TX Temperature Sensor
[56] TFA pool temperature sensor
[57] Kedsum Temperature & Humidity Sensor, Pearl NC-7415
[58] Blyss DC5-UK-WH
[59] Steelmate TPMS
[60] Schrader TPMS
[61]* LightwaveRF
[62]* Elro DB286A Doorbell
[63] Efergy Optical
[64]* Honda Car Key
[67] Radiohead ASK
[68] Kerui PIR / Contact Sensor
[69] Fine Offset WH1050 Weather Station
[70] Honeywell Door/Window Sensor, 2Gig DW10/DW11, RE208 repeater
[71] Maverick ET-732/733 BBQ Sensor
[72]* RF-tech
[73] LaCrosse TX141-Bv2, TX141TH-Bv2, TX141-Bv3, TX141W, TX145wsdth sensor
[74] Acurite 00275rm,00276rm Temp/Humidity with optional probe
[75] LaCrosse TX35DTH-IT, TFA Dostmann 30.3155 Temperature/Humidity sensor
[76] LaCrosse TX29IT, TFA Dostmann 30.3159.IT Temperature sensor
[77] Vaillant calorMatic VRT340f Central Heating Control
[78] Fine Offset Electronics, WH25, WH32B, WH24, WH65B, HP1000 Temperature/Humidity/Pressure Sensor
[79] Fine Offset Electronics, WH0530 Temperature/Rain Sensor
[80] IBIS beacon
[81] Oil Ultrasonic STANDARD FSK
[82] Citroen TPMS
[83] Oil Ultrasonic STANDARD ASK
[84] Thermopro TP11 Thermometer
[85] Solight TE44/TE66, EMOS E0107T, NX-6876-917
[86] Wireless Smoke and Heat Detector GS 558
[87] Generic wireless motion sensor
[88] Toyota TPMS
[89] Ford TPMS
[90] Renault TPMS
[91] inFactory, nor-tec, FreeTec NC-3982-913 temperature humidity sensor
[92] FT-004-B Temperature Sensor
[93] Ford Car Key
[94] Philips outdoor temperature sensor (type AJ3650)
[95] Schrader TPMS EG53MA4, PA66GF35
[96] Nexa
[97] Thermopro TP08/TP12/TP20 thermometer
[98] GE Color Effects
[99] X10 Security
[100] Interlogix GE UTC Security Devices
[101]* Dish remote 6.3
[102] SimpliSafe Home Security System (May require disabling automatic gain for KeyPad decodes)
[103] Sensible Living Mini-Plant Moisture Sensor
[104] Wireless M-Bus, Mode C&T, 100kbps (-f 868950000 -s 1200000)
[105] Wireless M-Bus, Mode S, 32.768kbps (-f 868300000 -s 1000000)
[106]* Wireless M-Bus, Mode R, 4.8kbps (-f 868330000)
[107]* Wireless M-Bus, Mode F, 2.4kbps
[108] Hyundai WS SENZOR Remote Temperature Sensor
[109] WT0124 Pool Thermometer
[110] PMV-107J (Toyota) TPMS
[111] Emos TTX201 Temperature Sensor
[112] Ambient Weather TX-8300 Temperature/Humidity Sensor
[113] Ambient Weather WH31E Thermo-Hygrometer Sensor, EcoWitt WH40 rain gauge
[114] Maverick et73
[115] Honeywell ActivLink, Wireless Doorbell
[116] Honeywell ActivLink, Wireless Doorbell (FSK)
[117]* ESA1000 / ESA2000 Energy Monitor
[118]* Biltema rain gauge
[119] Bresser Weather Center 5-in-1
[120]* Digitech XC-0324 temperature sensor
[121] Opus/Imagintronix XT300 Soil Moisture
[122]* FS20
[123]* Jansite TPMS Model TY02S
[124] LaCrosse/ELV/Conrad WS7000/WS2500 weather sensors
[125] TS-FT002 Wireless Ultrasonic Tank Liquid Level Meter With Temperature Sensor
[126] Companion WTR001 Temperature Sensor
[127] Ecowitt Wireless Outdoor Thermometer WH53/WH0280/WH0281A
[128] DirecTV RC66RX Remote Control
[129]* Eurochron temperature and humidity sensor
[130] IKEA Sparsnas Energy Meter Monitor
[131] Microchip HCS200 KeeLoq Hopping Encoder based remotes
[132] TFA Dostmann 30.3196 T/H outdoor sensor
[133] Rubicson 48659 Thermometer
[134] Holman Industries iWeather WS5029 weather station (newer PCM)
[135] Philips outdoor temperature sensor (type AJ7010)
[136] ESIC EMT7110 power meter
[137] Globaltronics QUIGG GT-TMBBQ-05
[138] Globaltronics GT-WT-03 Sensor
[139] Norgo NGE101
[140] Elantra2012 TPMS
[141] Auriol HG02832, HG05124A-DCF, Rubicson 48957 temperature/humidity sensor
[142] Fine Offset Electronics/ECOWITT WH51 Soil Moisture Sensor
[143] Holman Industries iWeather WS5029 weather station (older PWM)
[144] TBH weather sensor
[145] WS2032 weather station
[146] Auriol AFW2A1 temperature/humidity sensor
[147] TFA Drop Rain Gauge 30.3233.01
[148] DSC Security Contact (WS4945)
[149] ERT Standard Consumption Message (SCM)
[150]* Klimalogg
[151] Visonic powercode
[152] Eurochron EFTH-800 temperature and humidity sensor
[153] Cotech 36-7959 wireless weather station with USB
[154] Standard Consumption Message Plus (SCMplus)
[155] Fine Offset Electronics WH1080/WH3080 Weather Station (FSK)
[156] Abarth 124 Spider TPMS
[157] Missil ML0757 weather station
[158] Sharp SPC775 weather station
[159] Insteon
[160] ERT Interval Data Message (IDM)
[161] ERT Interval Data Message (IDM) for Net Meters
[162]* ThermoPro-TX2 temperature sensor
[163] Acurite 590TX Temperature with optional Humidity
[164] Security+ 2.0 (Keyfob)
[165] TFA Dostmann 30.3221.02 T/H Outdoor Sensor
[166] LaCrosse Technology View LTV-WSDTH01 Breeze Pro Wind Sensor
[167] Somfy RTS
[168] Schrader TPMS SMD3MA4 (Subaru)
[169]* Nice Flor-s remote control for gates
[170] LaCrosse Technology View LTV-WR1 Multi Sensor
[171] LaCrosse Technology View LTV-TH Thermo/Hygro Sensor
[172] Bresser Weather Center 6-in-1, 7-in-1 indoor, new 5-in-1, 3-in-1 wind gauge, Froggit WH6000, Ventus C8488A
[173] Bresser Weather Center 7-in-1
[174] EcoDHOME Smart Socket and MCEE Solar monitor
[175] LaCrosse Technology View LTV-R1 Rainfall Gauge
[176] BlueLine Power Monitor
[177] Burnhard BBQ thermometer
[178] Security+ (Keyfob)
[179] Cavius smoke, heat and water detector
[180] Jansite TPMS Model Solar
[181] Amazon Basics Meat Thermometer
[182] TFA Marbella Pool Thermometer
[183] Auriol AHFL temperature/humidity sensor
[184] Auriol AFT 77 B2 temperature sensor
[185] Honeywell CM921 Wireless Programmable Room Thermostat
[186] Hyundai TPMS (VDO)
[187] RojaFlex shutter and remote devices
[188] Marlec Solar iBoost+ sensors
[189] Somfy io-homecontrol
[190] Ambient Weather (Fine Offset) WH31L Lightning-Strike sensor
Disabled by default, use -R n or -G
= Input device selection =
RTL-SDR device driver is available.
[-d ] (default: 0)
[-d :]
To set gain for RTL-SDR use -g to set an overall gain in dB.
SoapySDR device driver is available.
[-d ""] Open default SoapySDR device
[-d driver=rtlsdr] Open e.g. specific SoapySDR device
To set gain for SoapySDR use -g ELEM=val,ELEM=val,… e.g. -g LNA=20,TIA=8,PGA=2 (for LimeSDR).
[-d rtl_tcp[:[//]host[:port]] (default: localhost:1234)
Specify host/port to connect to with e.g. -d rtl_tcp:127.0.0.1:1234
= Gain option =
[-g ] (default: auto)
For RTL-SDR: gain in dB ("0" is auto).
For SoapySDR: gain in dB for automatic distribution ("" is auto), or string of gain elements.
E.g. "LNA=20,TIA=8,PGA=2" for LimeSDR.
= Flex decoder spec =
Use -X to add a flexible general purpose decoder.
is "key=value[,key=value…]"
Common keys are:
name= (or: n=)
modulation= (or: m=)
short= (or: s=)
long= (or: l=)
sync= (or: y=)
reset= (or: r=)
gap= (or: g=)
tolerance= (or: t=)
where:
can be any descriptive name tag you need in the output
is one of:
OOK_MC_ZEROBIT : Manchester Code with fixed leading zero bit
OOK_PCM : Pulse Code Modulation (RZ or NRZ)
OOK_PPM : Pulse Position Modulation
OOK_PWM : Pulse Width Modulation
OOK_DMC : Differential Manchester Code
OOK_PIWM_RAW : Raw Pulse Interval and Width Modulation
OOK_PIWM_DC : Differential Pulse Interval and Width Modulation
OOK_MC_OSV1 : Manchester Code for OSv1 devices
FSK_PCM : FSK Pulse Code Modulation
FSK_PWM : FSK Pulse Width Modulation
FSK_MC_ZEROBIT : Manchester Code with fixed leading zero bit
, , are nominal modulation timings in us,
, , are maximum modulation timings in us:
PCM short: Nominal width of pulse [us]
long: Nominal width of bit period [us]
PPM short: Nominal width of '0' gap [us]
long: Nominal width of '1' gap [us]
PWM short: Nominal width of '1' pulse [us]
long: Nominal width of '0' pulse [us]
sync: Nominal width of sync pulse us
common gap: Maximum gap size before new row of bits [us]
reset: Maximum gap size before End Of Message [us]
tolerance: Maximum pulse deviation us.
Available options are:
bits= : only match if at least one row has bits
rows= : only match if there are rows
repeats= : only match if some row is repeated times
use opt>=n to match at least and opt<=n to match at most
invert : invert all bits
reflect : reflect each byte (MSB first to MSB last)
match= : only match if the are found
preamble= : match and align at the preamble
is a row spec of {}
unique : suppress duplicate row output
countonly : suppress detailed row output
E.g. -X "n=doorbell,m=OOK_PWM,s=400,l=800,r=7000,g=1000,match={24}0xa9878c,repeats>=3"
= Output format option =
[-F kv|json|csv|mqtt|influx|syslog|null] Produce decoded output in given format.
Without this option the default is KV output. Use "-F null" to remove the default.
Append output to file with : (e.g. -F csv:log.csv), defaults to stdout.
Specify MQTT server with e.g. -F mqtt://localhost:1883
Add MQTT options with e.g. -F "mqtt://host:1883,opt=arg"
MQTT options are: user=foo, pass=bar, retain[=0|1], [=topic]
Supported MQTT formats: (default is all)
events: posts JSON event data
states: posts JSON state data
devices: posts device and sensor info in nested topics
The topic string will expand keys like [/model]
E.g. -F "mqtt://localhost:1883,user=USERNAME,pass=PASSWORD,retain=0,devices=rtl_433[/id]"
With MQTT each rtl_433 instance needs a distinct driver selection. The MQTT Client-ID is computed from the driver string.
If you use multiple RTL-SDR, perhaps set a serial and select by that (helps not to get the wrong antenna).
Specify InfluxDB 2.0 server with e.g. -F "influx://localhost:9999/api/v2/write?org=&bucket=,token="
Specify InfluxDB 1.x server with e.g. -F "influx://localhost:8086/write?db=&p=&u="
Additional parameter -M time:unix:usec:utc for correct timestamps in InfluxDB recommended
Specify host/port for syslog with e.g. -F syslog:127.0.0.1:1514
= Meta information option =
[-M time[:]|protocol|level|noise[:]|stats|bits] Add various metadata to every output line.
Use "time" to add current date and time meta data (preset for live inputs).
Use "time:rel" to add sample position meta data (preset for read-file and stdin).
Use "time:unix" to show the seconds since unix epoch as time meta data.
Use "time:iso" to show the time with ISO-8601 format (YYYY-MM-DD"T"hh:mm:ss).
Use "time:off" to remove time meta data.
Use "time:usec" to add microseconds to date time meta data.
Use "time:tz" to output time with timezone offset.
Use "time:utc" to output time in UTC.
(this may also be accomplished by invocation with TZ environment variable set).
"usec" and "utc" can be combined with other options, eg. "time:unix:utc:usec".
Use "protocol" / "noprotocol" to output the decoder protocol number meta data.
Use "level" to add Modulation, Frequency, RSSI, SNR, and Noise meta data.
Use "noise[:secs]" to report estimated noise level at intervals (default: 10 seconds).
Use "stats[:[][:]]" to report statistics (default: 600 seconds).
level 0: no report, 1: report successful devices, 2: report active devices, 3: report all
Use "bits" to add bit representation to code outputs (for debug).
= Read file option =
[-r ] Read data from input file instead of a receiver
Parameters are detected from the full path, file name, and extension.
A center frequency is detected as (fractional) number suffixed with 'M',
'Hz', 'kHz', 'MHz', or 'GHz'.
A sample rate is detected as (fractional) number suffixed with 'k',
'sps', 'ksps', 'Msps', or 'Gsps'.
File content and format are detected as parameters, possible options are:
'cu8', 'cs16', 'cf32' ('IQ' implied), and 'am.s16'.
Parameters must be separated by non-alphanumeric chars and are case-insensitive.
Overrides can be prefixed, separated by colon (':')
E.g. default detection by extension: path/filename.am.s16
forced overrides: am:s16:path/filename.ext
Reading from pipes also support format options.
E.g reading complex 32-bit float: CU32:-
= Write file option =
[-w ] Save data stream to output file (a '-' dumps samples to stdout)
[-W ] Save data stream to output file, overwrite existing file
Parameters are detected from the full path, file name, and extension.
File content and format are detected as parameters, possible options are:
'cu8', 'cs8', 'cs16', 'cf32' ('IQ' implied),
'am.s16', 'am.f32', 'fm.s16', 'fm.f32',
'i.f32', 'q.f32', 'logic.u8', 'ook', and 'vcd'.
Parameters must be separated by non-alphanumeric chars and are case-insensitive.
Overrides can be prefixed, separated by colon (':')
E.g. default detection by extension: path/filename.am.s16
forced overrides: am:s16:path/filename.ext

Some examples:

CommandDescription
rtl_433Default receive mode, use the first device found, listen at 433.92 MHz at 250k sample rate.
rtl_433 -C siDefault receive mode, also convert units to metric system.
rtl_433 -f 868M -s 1024kListen at 868 MHz and 1024k sample rate.
rtl_433 -M hires -M levelReport microsecond accurate timestamps and add reception levels (depending on gain).
rtl_433 -R 1 -R 8 -R 43Enable only specific decoders for desired devices.
rtl_433 -AEnable pulse analyzer. Summarizes the timings of pulses, gaps, and periods. Can be used with -R 0 to disable decoders.
rtl_433 -S all -T 120Save all detected signals (g###_###M_###k.cu8). Run for 2 minutes.
rtl_433 -K FILE -r file_nameRead a saved data file instead of receiving live data. Tag output with filenames.
rtl_433 -F json -M utc | mosquitto_pub -t home/rtl_433 -lWill pipe the output to network as JSON formatted MQTT messages. A test MQTT client can be found in examples/mqtt_rtl_433_test_client.py.
rtl_433 -f 433.53M -f 434.02M -H 15Will poll two frequencies with 15 seconds hop interval.