Xmap : A Fast Network Scanner Designed For Performing Internet-wide IPv6 &Amp; IPv4 Network Research Scanning


XMap is a fast network scanner designed for performing Internet-wide IPv6 & IPv4 network research scanning.

XMap is reimplemented and improved thoroughly from ZMap and is fully compatible with ZMap, armed with the “5 minutes” probing speed and novel scanning techniques. XMap is capable of scanning the 32-bits address space in under 45 minutes. With a 10 gigE connection and PF_RING, XMap can scan the 32-bits address space in under 5 minutes. Moreover, leveraging the novel IPv6 scanning approach, XMap can discover the IPv6 Network Periphery fast. Furthermore, XMap can scan the network space randomly with any length and at any position, such as 2001:db8::/32-64 and Besides, XMap can probe multiple ports simultaneously.

XMap operates on GNU/Linux, Mac OS, and BSD. XMap currently has implemented probe modules for ICMP Echo scans, TCP SYN scans, and UDP probes.

With banner grab and TLS handshake tool, ZGrab2, more involved scans could be performed.


The latest stable release of XMap is version 1.0.0 and supports Linux, macOS, and BSD. We recommend installing XMap from HEAD rather than using a distro package manager (not supported yet).

Instructions on building XMap from source can be found in INSTALL.

Installing and Building XMap

Installing via Package Manager

XMap operates on GNU/Linux, macOS, and BSD.

Installing with the most OS package managers is not integrated yet.

Fedora 19+ or EPEL 6+-
Debian 8+ or Ubuntu 14.04+-
macOS (using Homebrew)-
Arch Linux-

Building From Source

Installing XMap Dependencies

XMap has the following dependencies:

  • CMake – Cross-platform, open-source build system
  • GMP – Free library for arbitrary precision arithmetic
  • gengetopt – Command line option parsing for C programs
  • libpcap – Famous user-level packet capture library
  • flex and byacc – Output filter lexer and parser generator
  • json-c – JSON implementation in C
  • libunistring – Unicode string library for C
  • libdnet – (macOS Only) Gateway and route detection

In addition, the following optional packages enable optional XMap functionality:

  • hiredis – RedisDB support in C

Install the required dependencies with the following commands.

  • On Debian-based systems (including Ubuntu):

sudo apt-get install build-essential cmake libgmp3-dev gengetopt libpcap-dev flex byacc libjson-c-dev pkg-config libunistring-dev

On RHEL- and Fedora-based systems (including CentOS):

sudo yum install cmake gmp-devel gengetopt libpcap-devel flex byacc json-c-devel libunistring-devel

On macOS systems (using Homebrew):

brew install pkg-config cmake gmp gengetopt json-c byacc libdnet libunistring

Building and Installing XMap

Once these prerequisites are installed, XMap can be compiled by running:

cmake .
make -j4

Development Notes

  • Enabling development turns on debug symbols, and turns off optimizations. Release builds should be built with -DENABLE_DEVELOPMENT=OFF.
  • Enabling log_trace can have a major performance impact and should not be used except during early development. Release builds should be built with -DENABLE_LOG_TRACE=OFF.
  • Redis support is not enabled by default. If you want to use XMap with Redis, you will first need to install hiredis. Then run cmake with -DWITH_REDIS=ON. Debian/Ubuntu has packaged hiredis as libhiredis-dev; Fedora and RHEL/CentOS have packaged it as hiredis-devel.
  • Building packages for some systems like Fedora and RHEL requires a user-definable directory (buildroot) to put files. The way to respect this prefix is to run cmake with -DRESPECT_INSTALL_PREFIX_CONFIG=ON.
  • Manpages (and their HTML representations) are generated from the .ronn source files in the repository, using the ronn tool. This does not happen automatically as part of the build process; to regenerate the man pages you’ll need to run make manpages. This target assumes that ronn is in your PATH.
  • Building with some versions of CMake may fail with unable to find parser.h. If this happens, try updating CMake. If it still fails, don’t clone XMap into a path that contains the string .com, and try again.
  • XMap may be installed to an alternative directory, with the CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX option. For example, to install it in $HOME/opt run

make -j4
make install


A guide to using XMap can be found in our GitHub Wiki.

Simple commands and options to using XMap can be found in USAGE.

xmap(1) – The Fast Internet Scanner


xmap [ -4 | -6 ] [ -x <len> ] [ -p <port> ] [ -o <outfile> ] [ OPTIONS… ] [ ip|domain|range ]


XMap is a network tool for scanning any IPv6 & IPv4 address space (or large samples), reimplemented and improved thoroughly from ZMap. XMap is capable of scanning the 32-bits network space in around 45 minutes on a gigabit network connection, reaching ~98% theoretical line speed.



  • -6--ipv6: Scanning the IPv6 networks (default).
  • -4--ipv4: Scanning the IPv4 networks.
  • -x--max-len=len: Max IP bit length to scan (default = 32).
  • ip|domain|range: IP addresses or DNS hostnames to scan. Accept IP ranges in CIDR block notation. Max length of domains is 256, e.g, 2001::/64,, and www.qq.com/32. Default to ::/0 and
  • -p--target-port=port|range: TCP or UDP port(s) number to scan (for SYN scans and basic UDP scans). Accepts port ranges with , and -, e.g., 80,443,8080-8081. With --target-port, one target is a <ip/x, port>.
  • -o--output-file=name: When using an output module that uses a file, write results to this file. Use - for stdout.
  • -b--blacklist-file=path: File of subnets to exclude, accept DNS hostnames, in CIDR notation, one-per line. It is recommended you use this to exclude RFC 1918 addresses, multicast, IANA reserved space, and other IANA special-purpose addresses. An example blacklist file blacklist4.conf for this purpose.
  • -w--whitelist-file=path: File of subnets to include, accept DNS hostnames, in CIDR notation, one-per line. Specifying a whitelist file is equivalent to specifying to ranges directly on the command line interface, but allows specifying a large number of subnets. Note: if you are specifying a large number of individual IP addresses (more than 1 million), you should instead use --list-of-ips-file. An example whitelist file whitelist6.conf for this purpose.
  • -I--list-of-ips-file=path: File of individual IP addresses to scan, one-per line. This feature allows you to scan a large number of unrelated addresses. If you have a small number of IPs, it is faster to specify these on the command line or by using --whitelist-fileNote: this should only be used when scanning more than 1 million addresses. When used in with --whitelist-file, only hosts in the intersection of both sets will be scanned. Hosts specified here, but included in the --blacklist-file will be excluded.


  • -R--rate=pps: Set the send rate in pkts/sec. Note: when combined with --probes or --retries, this is total packets per second, not target number per second. Setting the rate to 0 will scan at full line rate (no sleep). Default to 1 pps.
  • -B--bandwidth=bps: Set the send rate in bits/sec (supports suffixes G/g, M/m, and K/k, e.g. -B 10M for 10 mbps). This overrides the --rate flag. Default to 0 bps.
  • --batch=num: Number of packets to send in a burst between checks to the ratelimit. A batch size above 1 allows the sleep-based rate-limiter to be used with proportionally higher rates. This can reduce CPU usage, in exchange for a bursty send rate (default = 1).
  • --probes=num: Number of probes to send to each target (default = 1).
  • --retries=num: Number of times to try resending a packet if the sendto call fails (default = 1).
  • -n--max-targets=num: Capture number of targets to probe (default = -1).
  • -k--max-packets=num: Capture number of packets to send (default = -1).
  • -t--max-runtime=secs: Capture length of time for sending packets (default = -1).
  • -N--max-results=num: Exit after receiving this many results (default = -1).
  • -E--est-elements=num: Estimated number of results for unique (default = 5e8). Note: XMap uses the bloomfilter to check the duplicate results, which costs some of the memory. Choose the proper --est-elements to adapt to your memory capacity.
  • -c--cooldown-secs=secs: How long to continue receiving after sending has completed (default = 5).
  • -e--seed=num: Seed used to select address permutation. Use this if you want to scan addresses in the same order for multiple XMap runs (default = 0).
  • --shards=num: Split the scan up into N shards/partitions among different instances of xmap (default = 1). When sharding, --seed is required.
  • --shard=num: Set which shard to scan (default = 0). Shards are 0-indexed in the range [0, N), where N is the total number of shards. When sharding--seed is required.


  • -s--source-port=port|range: Source port(s) to send packets from. Accept port ranges with -, e.g., 12345-54321. Default to 32768-61000.
  • -S--source-ip=ip|range: Source address(es) to send packets from. Either single IP or range. Accept ip ranges with , and -, e.g., 2001::1, 2001::2-2001::10.
  • -G--gateway-mac=mac: Gateway MAC address to send packets to (in case auto-detection fails).
  • --source-mac=mac: Source MAC address to send packets from (in case auto-detection fails).
  • -i--interface=name: Network interface to use.
  • -X--iplayer: Send IP layer packets instead of ethernet packets (for non-Ethernet interface).


XMap allows users to specify and write their own probe modules. Probe modules are responsible for generating probe packets to send, and processing responses from hosts.

  • --list-probe-modules: List available probe modules (e.g., tcp_syn).
  • -M--probe-module=name: Select probe module (default = icmp_echo).
  • --probe-args=args: Arguments to pass to probe module.
  • --probe-ttl=hops: Set TTL value for probe IP packets (default = 255).
  • --list-output-fields: List the fields the selected probe module can send to the output module.


XMap allows users to specify and write their own output modules for use with XMap. Output modules are responsible for processing the fieldsets returned by the probe module, and outputting them to the user. Users can specify output fields, and write filters over the output fields.

  • --list-output-modules: List available output modules (e.g., csv).
  • -O--output-module=name: Select output module (default = csv).
  • --output-args=args: Arguments to pass to output module.
  • -f--output-fields=fields: Comma-separated list of fields to output. Accept fields with , and *.
  • --output-filter: Specify an output filter over the fields defined by the probe module. See the output filter section for more details.


XMap allows users to specify and write their own iid modules for use with XMap. IID modules are responsible for filling the left bits behind the probed prefix, and creating a whole target address.

processing the fieldsets returned by the probe module, and outputting them to the user. Users can specify output fields, and write filters over the output fields.

  • --list-iid-modules: List available iid modules (e.g., low).
  • -U--iid-module=name: Select iid module (default = low).
  • --iid-args=args: Arguments to pass to iid module.
  • --iid-num=num: Number of iid for one target prefix.


  • -q--quiet: Do not print status updates once per second.
  • -v--verbosity=n: Level of log detail (0-5, default = 3).
  • -l--log-file=filename: Output file for log messages. By default, stderr.
  • -L--log-directory=path: Write log entries to a timestamped file in this directory.
  • -m--metadata-file=filename: Output file for scan metadata (JSON).
  • -u--status-updates-file: Write scan progress updates to CSV file.
  • --disable-syslog: Disables logging messages to syslog.
  • --notes=notes: Inject user-specified notes into scan metadata.
  • --user-metadata=json: Inject user-specified JSON metadata into scan metadata.


  • -T--sender-threads=num: Threads used to send packets. XMap will attempt to detect the optimal number of send threads based on the number of processor cores.
  • -C--config=filename: Read a configuration file, which can specify any other options.
  • -d--dryrun: Print out each packet to stdout instead of sending it (useful for debugging).
  • --max-sendto-failures=num: Maximum NIC sendto failures before scan is aborted.
  • --min-hitrate=rate: Minimum hitrate that scan can hit before scan is aborted.
  • --cores: Comma-separated list of cores to pin to.
  • --ignore-blacklist-error: Ignore invalid, malformed, or unresolvable entries in --whitelist-file and --blacklist-file.
  • --ignore-filelist-error: Ignore invalid, malformed, or unresolvable entries in --list-of-ips-file.
  • -h--help: Print help and exit.
  • -V--version: Print version and exit.


Results generated by a probe module can be filtered before being passed to the output module. Filters are defined over the output fields of a probe module. Filters are written in a simple filtering language, similar to SQL, and are passed to XMap using the --output-filter option. Output filters are commonly used to filter out duplicate results, or to only pass only successful responses to the output module.

Filter expressions are of the form <fieldname> <operation> <value>. The type of <value> must be either a string or unsigned integer literal, and match the type of <fieldname>. The valid operations for integer comparisons are =!=<><=>=. The operations for string comparisons are =!=. The--list-output-fields flag will print what fields and types are available for the selected probe module, and then exit.

Compound filter expressions may be constructed by combining filter expressions using parenthesis to specify order of operations, the && (logical AND) and || (logical OR) operators.

For example, a filter for only successful, non-duplicate responses would be written as: --output-filter="success = 1 && repeat = 0".


These arguments are all passed using the --probe-args=args option. Only one argument may be passed at a time.

  • file:/path/to/file: Path to payload file to send to each host over UDP.
  • text:<text>: ASCII text to send to each destination host.
  • hex:<hex>: Hex-encoded binary to send to each destination host.
  • dir:/directory/to/file: Directory to payload file to send to each host over UDP when probing multiple ports. File extension priority: pkt>txt>hex. Each file is named by the port number, e.g., 53.pkt for DNS payload.
  • template:/path/to/template: Path to template file. For each destination host, the template file is populated, set as the UDP payload, and sent.
  • template-fields: Print information about the allowed template fields and exit.
  • icmp-type-code-str: Print value of the icmp related filters and exit.


You can change the rate at which XMap is scanning mid-scan by sending SIGUSR1 (increase) and SIGUSR2 (decrease) signals to XMap. These will result in the scan rate increasing or decreasing by 5%.


scan the ::/0-32 space by Echo ping and output to stdout
xmap -4
scan the space by Echo ping and output to stdout
xmap -N 5 -B 10M
find 5 alive IPv6 hosts, scanning at 10 Mb/s
xmap 2001::/8 2002::/16
scan both subnets for 2001::/8-32 and 2002::/16-32 space
xmap -x 64 2001::/32 -U rand
scan 2001::/32-64 with random IID, e.g., 2001::1783:ab42:9247:cb38
xmap -M icmp_echo -O csv -U low -h
show help text for modules icmp_echo, csv, and low
xmap -M tcp_syn -p 80,443,8080-8081
scan the ::/0-32 space for port 80,443,8080,8081 by TCP SYN ping


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here